Firstly, using electrostatic you attract and capture powder particles to the component. Then baking takes place where the powder turns into a liquid and flows. Finally this fuses, leaving a protective coating.
This process is solvent free, and is more environmentally friendly in comparison to traditional painting processes, releasing no volatile organic compounds.
One big advantage of this process is that you get extremely consistent parts, with no running or sagging of paint. In contrast, traditional painting, if not setup and done professionally, can leave steaks and uneven thicknesses.
Powder coating gives a protect skin and helps prevents things such as corrosion and scratch marks.